大日如来坐像 - MIHO MUSEUM

大日如来坐像だいにちにょらいざぞう

  • 平安時代後期
  • 12c
  • 一木造漆箔
  • H-54.5

平安時代後期 12世紀
木造漆箔
像高:54.5cm

大日如来像は金剛界のものと胎蔵界のものがあり,いずれもそれぞれの曼荼羅の主尊である。如来といわれながら宝髻を結い,装身具をつけ,上半身に条帛,下半身に裙をそれぞれ着すという,菩薩と同じ姿をするこの尊は,両手の印契により金剛界と胎蔵界に分けられる。金剛界大日如来像の結ぶ智拳印は,両手で胸前に拳をつくり,右の拳で左の人差し指を握る印で,これに対し胎蔵界大日如来像の定印は,腹前で両手を上下に重ねる。前者は煩悩即菩提の理を示し,後者は仏・菩薩の功徳を表すとされる。智拳印を結んでいる本像は,したがって金剛界に属することになる。

本像は平安時代後期としては大変珍しく,一木造の構造である。つまり,頭・体の根幹となる部分を一材から彫り出し,これに両手部(肘と手首でも矧ぐ),両足部を矧ぐという単純な木寄せで,内刳りもない。臂釧・腕釧・胸飾などの装身具はほとんどが欠失するが,釘の痕からもとは銅製のものがあったと推測される。表面の漆箔は現状では後補とみられる。

一木造という古風な技法を採用しているだけでなく,角ばった顔立ち,硬さのある体躯や衣文などのことから,京都での製作とは考えがたく,いずれかの地方作とみた方が妥当である。平安時代後期,12世紀の作であろう。光背と台座は近時の補作である。
(伊東)

Catalogue Entry

Late Heian period, 12th century
Single wood with lacquer-applied gilding
Figure height, 54.5cm

There are Dainichi Nyorai images in both the Kongokai mandala (Vajradhatu-mandala) and the Taizokai mandala (Garbhaknosa⇔-mandala), and both are the central deities of their respective mandala. While these deities are called Nyorai (Tathagata) forms, their hair is bound in the chignon form, they have bodily adornment, their upper bodies are clothed in johaku draperies, and their lower bodies are clothed in kun--all bodily forms seen on images of Bosatsu (Bodhisattva). The type of mudra formed by both hands distinguishes the Kongokai form from the Taizokai form. The Dainichi Nyorai image from the Kongokai displays the chiken'in mudra (Vajra-mudra) with both hands forming a fist before the figure's torso, with the right palm grasping the left index finger. The Dainichi Nyorai image from the Taizokai displays the jo'in mudra (Dhyana-mudra) with both hands placed one on top of the other in front of the figure's hips. The Kongokai form shows the wisdom of the bonno'in (Kles⇔a) while the Taizokai shows the charitable virtues of Buddhas and Bosatsu. As this image displays the chiken'in mudra, it can be placed in the Kongokai form.

The present image is extremely rare for this period as it is carved in the ichiboku zukuri form of single-block construction. Namely, the section that forms the central core of the head and body is carved from a single block of wood, while both arms (the elbows and wrists are also dovetailed) and the leg section have been simply dovetailed onto the central core, and there is no interior hollow. While the majority of the arm bracelets, armlets, and chest decoration fittings have been lost, there are still traces of nail holes which would indicate that these decorative elements were made of bronze. The present surface of lacquer-applied gilding appears to be a later addition.

Not only has the old form of single-block construction been used, but the squared face and the hard body and draperies also indicate that this work should not be considered a Kyoto production, but should rather be considered to have been carved in some provincial area. Probably a work of the 12th century during the late Heian period. Both the nimbus and the pedestal are modern additions. SI