耀変天目ようへんてんもく

  • 中国福建省~広東省・建窯
  • 中国・宋時代
  • 12-13c
  • 曜変黒釉陶製
  • H-6.6 D-12
  • 所蔵
    加賀・前田家(前田利常)伝来

中国・宋時代 11-12世紀
高:6.5-6.6cm 口径:11.8-12.1cm 高台径:3.9cm

耀変天目として著名なものと言えば,静嘉堂文庫美術館蔵,藤田美術館蔵,大徳寺龍光院蔵の三点であるが,長く紹介されなかったために一般にほとんど知られていない耀変天目がこの作品である。したがって,かつて世界に三碗のみと言われていた耀変天目が四碗存在していることになる。耀変天目については『君台観左右帳記』の「土之物」に「建盞の内の無上なり」とあるように,福建省の建窯で大量に焼かれた建盞の一種であるが,偶然窯中で油滴や建盞とは異なる美しい結晶が生じたものである。
この作品の場合も耀変独特の輝きをもつ斑文が見込みを中心に現れている。ことに先にあげた三碗の場合は結晶体が数点寄った状態であるが,この天目は斑文がそれぞれ独立した状態で発色している。器形は他の耀変天目や建盞と共通するもので,高台も端正に削られ,建盞独特の極めて細かい胎土が見られる。
前田利常以来,前田家に伝来し,前田家の道具帳にも詳しい様子が記載されている。箱蓋表の銀粉字形「曜変」の文字は小堀遠州の筆と言われ,青貝の天目台と二重蔓牡丹唐草金襴の袋が添っている。『大正名器鑑』所載。 (赤沼)

Catalogue Entry

China, Song dynasty, 11th to 12th centuries
Jian ware, black glaze
Height, 6.5-6.6cm; mouth diameter, 11.8-12.1cm;
foot diameter, 3.9cm

There are 3 famous examples of yohen, or spotted tenmoku tea bowls, namely those in the Seikado Bunko Art Museum, in the Fujita Museum, and at Ryoko-in, Daitokuji. The present work was not published for many years and is an example of yohen tenmoku that has not been well-known. Thus, there are actually 4 extant yohen tenmoku tea bowls, not simply the three that have long been described. The Kundaikansochoki's "tsuchinomono" section notes that yohen tenmoku is unparalleled among Jian wares. This tenmoku form is one type of ware produced at the Jian kilns in China's Fujien province, and was named for the unusually beautiful crystalline patterns that appear spontaneously in the firing, an effect that differs from that found on so-called "oil-spot" or other forms of Jian ware.
Here, these distinctive starburst spots of color unique to the yohen tenmoku type appear mainly on the interior of the bowl. While the three bowls named above generally have their starburst spots of color formed from several joined dots of crystal, these starburst crystals appear individually here. The form of this bowl is that seen in the other yohen bowls, and indeed in most tenmoku bowls, with its regularly carved foot and the use of the Jian kiln's extremely fine-grained clay.

This bowl was transmitted through the Maeda family beginning with Maeda Toshitsune, and the details of its appearance are noted in the tea utensil records of the Maeda family. The exterior of the box lid is inscribed "Yohen" in silver dust characters which are said to be in the calligraphy of Kobori Enshu, and the bowl is accompanied by a mother-of-pearl inlaid cup stand and a bag made of futae zuru botankarakusa kinran brocade. Published in the Taisho Meikikan. TA