モザイクガラス

  • エジプト
  • プトレマイオス朝後期-ローマ時代
  • 前1世紀-後1世紀
  • ガラス
  • H-3.5

美しく配色された複雑で精巧なモザイク・ガラスの象嵌は、プトレマイオス朝時代後期のエジプトや帝政ローマで調度品、宮殿や公共の建物の壁面を装飾した。これは、天然色である石の小片を石膏に嵌め込んで描いた床や壁のモザイクではない。モザイク・ガラスとは、それぞれ色の異なる長いガラス棒が末端や断面に一つのパターンを形作られるように合わせて束にしたものをいう。この束を融合するまで熱し、冷やしてから望まれた形象を持つよう薄切りされた。この技法は、表された主題がエジプト本来のものであり、エジプトで出土している事からこの地で発明されたものと思われる。

Catalogue Entry

Beautifully colored, intricately detailed inlays of mosaic glass decorated the furnishings and walls of palaces and public buildings in late Ptolemaic Egypt and in Imperial Rome. These are not to be confused with floor or wall mosaics in which various stone tesserae, each of a single color, were set into plaster to form a design. Mosaic glass was a medium unto itself in which long rods of glass, each a different color, were bundled together so that they formed a pattern visible on the end and in cross-section. They were then heated till they fused, and when cool, were sliced, each slice containing the image desired.
The technique is thought to have been invented in Egypt because the subjects are often Egyptian in nature, and many examples have been excavated there. Mosaic glass's popularity around Rome suggests that workshops were established there as well.1

A: Rectangular plaque with frieze of hieroglyphic signs: ankhs (the hieroglyph for "life," Gardiner S34) alternating with a pair of addorsed was-scepters (the hieroglyph for royal authority, Gardiner S40); in the interstices is an undetermined sign, possibly the ideogram for "sunshine" (Gardiner N8).2 This series of signs is repeated twice and the ankh appears once more. A more complex example was found by Sir Flinders Petrie at Dendera in Upper Egypt and is now in the British Museum, London.3 Similar to the latter is an example in Corning, New York,4 and another in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.5 Other inlays with was and ankh are in the British Museum,6 in the former Kofler-Truniger7 and Per-neb collections.8

B: Square plaque with ankh flanked by was-scepters.9

C: Square plaque with wedjat-eye or eye of Horus, the falcon god. The eye of Horus was a general good-luck amulet and also warded off the evil eye. Furthermore, when turned left, it symbolized the moon; when turned right, the sun. A mosaic slice could have been turned either way. Various parts of the eye were also used as fractional symbols. An example of similar design but different color was found by Petrie at Dendera and is in the British Museum.10 Three eye plaques are in Corning,11 one in Toledo,12 and several examples of various designs were in the Kofler-Truniger collection.13

D: Rectangular plaque with striding Apis bull.14 An exact duplicate, perhaps from the same rod, is in Corning,15 and another is in the Freer Gallery,16 both said to have come from Egypt. An Apis bull within a complex border was in the Kofler-Truniger collection.17

E: Rectangular fragment with geometric border, a vertical line flanked by single rows of tiny circles, perhaps an abstracted form of a cobra's body.18 A less complete version was in the Kofler-Truniger collection.19

F: Two-part mask of a maenad, female companion of Dionysos, identified by her grape-leaf crown. An identical inlay has been in two London sales.20 Others are in Corning,21 Toledo,22 and another formerly Kofler-Truniger.23

G: Framed New Comedy theater mask, identified as such by the gaping down-turned mouth and the fact that it lacks the satyr's or silen's grape-leaf crown. A near duplicate without frame was in a London sale.24 A less similar comedy mask is in the British Museum.25 Two others (called silenus and satyr) are in Corning,26 and two others formerly Kofler-Truniger.27

H: Square plaque with mask of Hathor, an Egyptian mother goddess, identified by her long tresses with single curl at bottom. Other Hathor plaques, not close in style, are in Corning.28

I: Five small square plaques with frontal human faces, perhaps Hathor,29 and two rectangular plaques with the traditional Egyptian design representing a palace (serekh) facade.30

J: Spherical bead with mask and checkerboard pattern. A spherical bead with mask mounted in gold is in the Kestner-Museum Hannover.31 Several others are strung together in the former Kofler-Truniger collection.32

APK


1. For discussions on the origin and uses of mosaic glass, see Harden 1987, pp. 16, 31-33;
Goldstein 1979, pp. 40-41.
2. Gardiner 1966, p. 486 (N8), p. 508 (S34), p. 509 (S40).
3. Harden et al. 1968, p. 26, no. 23 (E. 64224); Cooney 1974, p. 111, no. 1143, pl. IV.
4. Goldstein 1979, p. 228, no. 664.
5. Ettinghausen 1962, p. 20, fig. 55, pl. opp. p. 18.
6. Cooney 1974, p. 131, no. 1628, p. 132, no. 1638, p. 140, nos. 1723-26.
7. Christie's 1985, pp. 120-21, no. 227 (second from left), pp. 122-25, nos. 239m, 241m, pp. 128-29, nos. 245, 246h.
8. Christie's 1992, p. 18, no. 25.
9. See references for item A.
10. Harden et al. 1968, p. 26, no. 24; Cooney 1974, p. 112, no. 1149, pl. IV.
11. Goldstein 1979, pp. 227-28, nos. 661-63.
12. Grose 1989, p. 362, no. 630.
13. Christie's 1985, pp. 124-25, no. 241 d, pp. 128-29, nos. 246 (several examples).
14. Published: Christie's 1992, p. 17, no. 23.
15. Goldstein 1979, pp. 235-36, no. 684, there shown facing the opposite direction. See this reference for additional parallels. Three slices of Apis plaques are in the same collection: ibid., p. 235, no. 683.
16. Ettinghausen 1962, p. 18, fig. 53, pl. opp. p. 18.
17. Christie's 1985, p. 132, no. 251.
18. See cobra bar in Goldstein 1979, p. 231, no. 672.
19. Christie's 1985, pp. 120-21, no. 227 (third from left).
20. Christie's 1992, p. 13, no. 14; Christie's 1997, p. 26, no. 46.
21. Goldstein 1979, pp. 238-39, nos. 691-93.
22. Grose 1989, p. 362, no. 627.
23. Christie's 1985, p. 131, no. 250c.
24. Christie's 1992, p. 12, no. 11.
25. Harden et al. 1968, p. 26, no. 22; Cooney 1974, p. 140, no. 1682, pl. V.
26. Goldstein 1979, pp. 237-38, nos. 688-90.
27. Christie's 1985, p. 130, no. 249 (two in center).
28. Goldstein 1979, p. 236, nos. 686-87.
29. See references for item H.
30. Cooney 1974, p. 112, no. 1147, pl. IV.
31. Liepmann 1982, p. 125, no. 164, back cover.
32. Christie's 1985, p. 133, no. 252.

88.(襟飾り)解説

 4段の植物文で構成された襟飾り。白色のロータス、黄色の花、白色の花、白色の花びらの連続文が、橙色の細線で区切られて交互に並ぶ紺色と赤色の地に表現される。象嵌材として組み合わせて使われた。

91.(アピス牛)解説

 アピス牛を描いた飾板。アピス牛は、メンフィスの主神プタハの顕現あるいは使者とされた聖なる牡牛である。水色の地に、紺色と白色で表現された牡牛が、植物文の描かれた台座の上で歩を進めている。角の間には、聖蛇ウラエウスの付いた青緑色の日輪を載せる。牛の細部は紺色、黄色で、台座は紺色、黄色、赤色、灰色で表現されている。台座の植物文はギリシア風であり、エジプト的題材とギリシア的題材の双方がこの飾板に表現されている。同じモザイクガラス棒から切り取られたと思われるものを、アメリカのコーニング・ガラス博物館とフリア美術館が所蔵している。

94.(ハトホル女神)解説

 青緑色の地に、白色、暗紫色、赤色、黄色で女性の顔を表現した方形の飾板。長い髪の毛の先端が巻き毛になっていることから、大地母神ハトホルだと推測できる。

95.(女性)解説

 女性の上半身を表した小飾板。青緑色の地に白色、黒色、赤色で表現し、紺色の枠で囲む。これもハトホル女神かもしれない。5点とも同一のモザイクガラス棒の切片である。

96.(アンクとワス)解説

 アンクとワスの2つのヒエログリフを組み合わせた方形の飾板。アンクは上部に輪の付いたT字形をしており、生命を意味する。ワスはイヌ科の動物の頭をもち、下端が二股になった王笏で、王権を意味する。青色あるいは紺色の地に、赤色、白色、黄色、紺色で表現されている。Aはアンクの両側にワスが配され、全体が枠に囲まれている。枠の外側には別のモティーフがあったようである。B~dでは、アンクから伸びた両腕がワスをつかむモティーフが繰り返される。アンクの腕からは飾り輪のようなものが垂れ下がっている。この飾板は、アンクの半分とワスで構成されるモザイクガラス単位の表面と裏面を対称形に合わせて1つのモティーフとし、それをつないだものである。

アンクとワス

97.(王宮)解説

 青緑色の地に紺色と黄色で、王宮の正面を表している。

100.(マイナス)解説

 青色の地に、オフホワイトの顔をもつ女性のマスクが表現された方形飾板。半分の顔2枚を合わせたもの。頬に沿って3本の巻き毛が垂れ下がり、頭には木蔦の葉の冠をかぶっている。これらの細部は赤色、緑色、青色、黄色で表現される。マイナスは、ギリシア神話の酒神ディオニュソスに従い、陶酔して山野を踊り歌う狂信の女である。

102.(老人)解説

 緑色の地に、黄色の顔をもつ男性のマスクが表現された方形飾板。半分の顔2枚を合わせたもの。長く垂れ下がった白い顎鬚をはやす。白い髪の毛の先端も鬚と同じように垂れ下がっている。細部は黄色、暗紫色、白色、赤色で表現される。裏に暗紫色ガラスを貼り合わせた白色ガラスの枠が三方を囲んでいる。ニューコメディと呼ばれるギリシア劇の登場人物を表したものと思われる。

105.(人面象嵌ビーズ)解説

 モザイクガラスはビーズの装飾としても使われた。これらは、表面に人面のモザイクガラスが象嵌されたビーズである。白色の顔に黒色と赤色で細部が表されている。ビーズの中央に一列に並べて、あるいは同じくモザイクガラスの格子文などと交互に配置された。人面には2種類ある。女性の上半身を表したものと、顔だけを表したものである。後者はギリシア神話に登場する怪物のゴルゴン三姉妹の1人、メドゥーサのマスクであるとされる。メドゥーサは頭髪の1本1本が蛇で、その恐ろしい顔を見た者は石になった。後に英雄ペルセウスによって首を切り落とされたが、その首のモティーフは魔除けの性格をもってさまざまに使われた。モザイクガラスの顔を縁取る小さな四角形は、メドゥーサの頭から伸びる蛇の頭を表現したものと考えられる。これらのビーズにも魔除けの意味があったのだろう。

人面象嵌ビーズ 人面象嵌ビーズ

Catalogue Entry / Collar

Collar decoration made up of four ranks of vegetation motif. Rows of white lotuses, yellow flowers, white flowers, and white flower petals are all divided by thin orange lines and shown against alternating cobalt and red grounds. This fragment would have been used as an inlay element.

Catalogue Entry / Apis Bull

Decorative plaque depicting the Apis bull. The Apis bull was a sacred bull who was either a manifestation of Ptah, the main god of Memphis, or his envoy. The bull is depicted in cobalt and white against a pale blue ground as he strides across a dais decorated with plant motifs. A sun disk of turquoise glass depicting the sacred snake uraeus is shown between his horns. The details of the bull are depicted in cobalt and yellow, while the dais is expressed in cobalt, yellow, red and gray. The vegetation motif on the dais is Greek in style and this decorative panel reveals a pairing of Egyptian thematic motifs and Greek thematic motifs. Other plaques thought to have been cut from the same glass rod are in two American museums, the Corning Museum of Glass and the Freer Art Gallery.

Catalogue Entry / Goddess Hathor

A square decorative panel showing a woman's face depicted in white, dark purple, red and yellow against a turquoise ground. The tips of her long hair are curled, and it is surmised that she represents the earth goddess Hathor.

Catalogue Entry / Females

Small decorative panel showing a woman's upper body. The figure is depicted in white, black and red on a turquoise ground, surrounded by a cobalt border. This might also be an image of Hathor. All five fragments are from the same mosaic glass rod.

Catalogue Entry / Ankhs and Was-scepters

These rectangular decorative panels show a combination of two heiroglyphs, the ankh and was-scepters, with the ankh made up of a T-shaped form topped by a circle and symbolizing life. The was-scepters has the head of a dog-like animal with the lower extremities made into a two-pronged scepter, and symbolizes royal authority. The motifs are depicted in red, white, yellow, and cobalt against either a blue or cobalt background. In (a) the ankh is flanked on both sides by was-scepters and the overall area is framed. It appears that other motifs at one point existed outside the framing. (b) - (d) show a repetition of an ankh symbol grasping the was-scepters with both outstretched arms. Decorative bracelets hang from the arms of the ankhs. These decorative panels are made up of mosaic glass units consisting of half of an ankh and the was-scepters which are then paired front to back to make a single motif element and then connected with other elements of the same construct.

アンクとワス

Catalogue Entry / Palaces

The front of a palace is shown in cobalt and yellow on a turguise ground.

Catalogue Entry / Maenad

This rectangular decorative plaque shows a white female mask on a blue ground. Made from the alignment of two half faces. The three curls hang down by the cheeks and the face is crowned with an ivy crown. There details are expressed in red, green, blue and yellow. Maenad was an attendant to the Greek god Dionysos and is said to have been a woman who danced and sang in the mountain fields when she was drunk.

Catalogue Entry / Old Person

This rectangular decorative plaque shows a male mask in yellow against a green ground. Made from the alignment of two half faces. This face has a long, flowing white beard. The tips of his white hair slso hang down. The details are depicted in yellow, dark purple, white and red. This plaque has been surrounded by a white glass frame on three sides, which was then barked with dark purple glass. This figure is thought to represent one of the actors in the Greek theatre called the New Comedy.

Catalogue Entry / Mosaic Face Beads

Mosaic glass was used for the decoration of beads. These beads have mosaics of human face designs inlaid into their surface. The white face is depicted with details in red and black. These faces are either arranged in a line around the center of the bead, or they are interchanged with mosaic abstract patterns. There are two types of face seen in these beads, with either the upper body of a woman shown, or just her face. The face-only images are said to represent the mask of Medusa, one of the three monster Gorgon sisters who appear in Greek mythology. Each hair on Medusa's head was said to be a snake, and those who saw this frightening image were turned into stone. Medusa had her head cut off by Perseus and this severed head motif was used in various ways to ward off evil. Here, a small square shape surrounds the face image and this is thought to represent the face of Medusa surrounded by snakes. These beads may also have served as protection against evil.

人面象嵌ビーズ 人面象嵌ビーズ